Bioactive Molecules In VEDICINALS® 9
Here you find a detailed description of the 9 bioactive molecules used in VEDICINALS® 9 and their documented efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus and Covid19 disease.
Baicalin is a flavonoid from the root of Scutellaria Baicalensis Corsi with known anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial, antihypertensive effects. Baicalin has attracted increasing scientific attention because of its various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Baicalin also exhibited anti-viral, anti-HIV, anti-proliferative activities, inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis.
A variety of studies have shown that Baicalin is able to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and even inhibit viral entry into the host.
Quercetin is one of critical bioflavonoids present in Allium fistulosum, Calamus scipionum, Camellia sinensis, Centella asiatica, Hypericum hircinum, Malus domestica, Moringa olifera, and Morus alba and is known for its anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, vasodilator effects, anti-obesity, anti-hypercholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic activities. Some of its beneficial effects include cardiovascular protection, anticancer, antitumor, antiulcer, anti-allergy, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, gastroprotective effects and immunomodulatory properties.
Quercetin is also known to exhibit antibacterial effects against almost all strains of bacteria, particularly those affecting gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, and dermal system. Their anti-infective and antireplicative ability possibly contributes to the antiviral characteristics. Viruses which commonly respond to flavonoids are adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.
Research has shown that Quercetin not only plays a role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 replication but also is able to address the various disruptions caused by the virus directly or indirectly on various host cellular pathways and is also able to prevent disease severity and also treat various conditions in severe COVID-19. Some studies have even shown that Quercetin has prophylactic properties against the SARS-C0V-2 virus.
Luteolin (3′, 4′, 5′, 7′-tetrahydroxyflavone) is one of the most prevalent flavones present in variety of vegetables, fruits and herbs such as carrot, cabbage, artichoke, tea, celery and apple. Luteolin is an active compound with anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities Due to its potent anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory flavonoid, earlier studies and clinical trials on Luteolin had thus focused on cancer and inflammation. Since the 1950s to date, there has been an increase in the number of reports on the cardiovascular effects of Luteolin. Luteolin exhibits strong cardiovascular protective activities via complex signal transduction pathways and target effectors.
Studies have shown that Luteolin is able to help with various conditions arising from infection with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus including inflammation, neuroinflammation besides certain antiviral properties. It is also helps with the regulation of certain disrupted cellular pathways as a result of the virus besides inhibiting mast cells.
Rutin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone-3-rhamnoglucoside) is a flavonol, abundantly found in plants, such as passion flower, buckwheat, tea, and apple. Rutin, also called as rutoside or quercetin-3-rutinoside. Rutin has demonstrated a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, cytoprotective, vasoprotective, anticarcinogenic, and cardioprotective activities. It exhibits neuroprotective effects on brain ischemia. Rutin is found to prevent oxidative damage in ‘aortic endothelial cells’ by lowering nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. Rutin enhanced the in vitro serum protein binding of S- and R-warfarin. Concomitant administration of rutin possibly reduces the anticoagulant effect of racemic warfarin. Rutin in vitro caused concentration-dependent inhibition of platelet activating factor induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation, and intra-platelet free calcium concentration elevation was induced by platelet activating factor which was inhibited by rutin in a dose-dependent manner. It also exhibits antiviral properties for the treatment of infections caused by retroviruses, orthomyxoviruses, herpes viruses, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus.
Studies have shown that Rutin is able to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by interfering with the protease 3CLpro.Its anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulating properties has also been shown to help alleviate a lot of conditions in COVID-19 patients.
Hesperidin (C28H34O15) is known as a flavanone glycoside, richly found in the citrus fruits such as lemon, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), and grapefruits. The presence of this compound has also been proven in unripe sour oranges, Ponderosa lemon, Citrus unshiu, and C. mitis. In addition to the Citrus species, it could be isolated from other plant genera like Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Papilionaceae, Zanthoxylum species, and Acanthopanax setchuenensis.It possesses the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. Hesperidin and its aglycon, hesperetin, were found to be effective on different types of cancers. Along with the anti-cancer activity of hesperidin, the effect of the isoflavone on inflammation associated with cancer has been proven. It exhibited the inhibitory effect on the inflammatory-mediated cancers by regulating the level of inflammatory components like TNF-α, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and iNOS. Hesperidin was also found to have an anti-replicative activity against some viruses.
Some studies have proposed hesperidin as yet another prophylaxis against the SARS-CoV-2 virus while other have shown its antiviral properties by preventing virus replication. Many silico computational docking studies have shown that Hesperidin has tremendous application as an antiviral against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.
Curcumin (1, 7- bis (4- hydroxy -3- methoxyphenyl) -1, 6-heptadiene -3,5- dione), also called diferuloylmethane, is the main natural polyphenol found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and in others Curcuma spp. It has been shown to benefit inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, pain, and to help in the management of inflammatory and degenerative eye conditions In addition, it has been shown to benefit the kidneys .While there appear to be countless therapeutic benefits to Curcumin supplementation, most of these benefits are due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. Despite its reported benefits via inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms, Curcumin has been shown to block NF-κB activation increased by several different inflammatory stimuli.
Research has demonstrated that Curcumin has antiviral properties against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and at the same time is able to alleviate the inflammation caused by the cytokine storms. It was also shown to be a good immunomodulator for COVID-19 patients.
7. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
Catechins are the main flavonoids found in Camellia sinensis. Epigallocatechin Gallate EGCG has been found to have the highest antioxidant activity compared to others catechins. It has been reported that EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by preserving islet structure in comparison with control mice. One of beneficial effects would be a potentiation of anti-inflammatory properties induced by this flavonoid. In addition, antiinflammatory, antiaging, and antifibrosis properties of EGCG appear to involve several molecular signaling pathways and cellular machineries. Several lines of evidence from various in vitro and in vivo animal studies have suggested that EGCG exerts renoprotection against Chronic Kidney Disease.
Studies have shown that EGCG exhibits antivial properties against eh SARS-CoV-2 virus including replication disruption and inhibiting binding to receptors. It also helps in restoration of various cellular disruptions by the virus. It also demonstrates prophylaxis properties against the said virus.
Piperine is a compound belonging to the alkaloids; it is found in the members of the Piperaceae family, been detected in several other plant species (Rhododendron faurie, Vicoa indica, Anethum sowa, and others). Piperine bioactivities have reported the very high spectrum of physiological effects, including antihypertensive, antiaggregant, antioxidant, antitumor, antispasmodic, antiasthmatic, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and many others.
Importantly Piperine is known for its ability to increase the bioavailability and efficacy of other phytochemicals and drugs, thus enhancing their therapeutic potential.
Research has shown that Piperine has antiviral potential against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus while also enhances other phytochemicals’ efficacy against the virus.
The major bioactive constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn (Family-Fabaceae), is glycyrrhizin and it has antitussive, demulcent, and expectorant loosening activities. Glycyrrhizin helps to expel congestion in the upper respiratory tract as it accelerates tracheal mucus secretion. Glycyrrhizin, an already known anti-inflammatory compound, has also been found as the first plant-based inhibitor of thrombin .It prolonged the thrombin and fibrinogen clotting time and increased plasma recalcification duration. Glycyrrhizin has a prominent antiviral activity, as it inhibits the virus cell binding activities. Glycyrrhizin has been used for more than 60 years as treatment for chronic hepatitis under the name of SNMC (stronger neo– minophagen-C) clinically as an antiallergic and antihepatitis agent . Glycyrrhizin induced significant reduction in serum aminotransferases and improved the liver histology when compared with the placebo. An aglycone of glycyrrhizin decreases the expression of P450 E1 thereby protecting the liver. It has anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, mild laxative, antistress and antidepressive properties.
Research showed that Glycyrrhizin not only exhibits antiviral replication disruptive properties, but it also prevented disease progression and even has the potential to prevent symptoms from developing in those that were infected.
All constituents found in VEDICINALS® 9 were carefully selected for their various potential bioativities against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and also in addressing and helping to treat and regulate more than 71 human host cellular pathways that are disrupted by the virus directly or indirectly. More details on these can be found in the white paper on VEDICINALS® 9.